When Chinese leader Xi Jinping came to power in 2012, he unveiled a grand vision for the country’s “great rejuvenation” — a “dream” of making China strong and prosperous.
Ten years later, Xi Jinping has changed China. He cemented the country as a force on the world stage, with a vast economic footprint, a modern military and growing technological prowess.
But China has also become a place of increasing strictness on its citizens, with rapid suppression of dissent, pervasive surveillance and growing social control, made more apparent under Xi Jinping’s costly and isolating zero-coronavirus policy.
As the Chinese Communist Party undergoes a five-year leadership reshuffle, CNN looks back at a decade of dramatic changes in China, setting the stage for a new chapter in China as Xi Jinping, its most powerful leader in decades People – Stepping into an expected third term that breaks the rules.
Credits (from top right): Ng Han Guan/AP, Kevin Frayer/Getty Images, Noel Celis/AFP/Getty Images, Ng Han Guan/AP, Nicolas Asfouri/AFP/Getty Images.
Credits (clockwise from top left): Ng Han Guan/AP, Kevin Frayer/Getty Images, Nicolas Asfouri/AFP/Getty Images, Noel Celis/AFP/Getty Images, Ng Han Guan/AP.
Xi Jinping also built a cult of personality around himself as the “core” of the party, reinforcing the party’s role in all aspects of life.
The Belt and Road Initiative
Under Xi’s flagship project, Chinese entities have spent an average of $85 billion a year, estimated by U.S. research lab AidData, to finance infrastructure from Southeast Asia to Latin America — despite criticism of risky lending.
Photo credit: Ishara S. Kodikara/AFP/Getty Images
Beijing has grown more assertive in its territorial claims — militarizing islands in the South China Sea, clashing with India over disputed Himalayan borders, escalating tensions with Japan over uninhabited islands, and It has stepped up its rhetoric on its claims to Taiwan.
Beijing favors a new type of diplomat: combative and decisive, ready to lash out at the United Nations or on social media in defense of Xi’s policies.
Credit: Kyodo News/Associated Press
Xi Jinping has pledged that China, the largest emitter of greenhouse gases, will become carbon neutral by 2060 and stop building coal-fired power plants overseas — although transparency remains limited.
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close to russia
Beijing and Moscow have intensified their “strategic partnership” in recent years, moving closer over their respective tensions with the West and personal ties between Xi and Russian President Vladimir Putin.
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Image credits (top to bottom): Kevin Frayer/Getty Images, Li Tang/VCG/Getty Images, Li Bingyu/Xinhua/The Associated Press.
Since 2012, rural residents no longer live under China’s “absolute poverty” standard.
As of June 2022, the number of Internet users in China is up from 564 million in 2012.
Since the end of 2012, China’s high-speed rail network has added kilometers (about 20,000 miles).
It is estimated that at the peak of China’s crackdown on private companies in 2021, Chinese companies lost their market value globally.
Source: China State Council Information Office, China Internet Network Information Center, Xinhua News Agency, Goldman Sachs
According to human rights groups, more than 1 million Uighurs and other ethnic minorities are estimated to be held in detention facilities, where torture and sexual abuse have been reported. China said it dismantled so-called “education and training” centers, but researchers said some detainees were transferred to prisons.
Credit: Thomas Peter/Reuters
The UN report cited a far-reaching system of video surveillance, police checkpoints, biometric data collection and digital surveillance in Xinjiang that is believed to allow local authorities to track and target Muslim minorities.
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Rights groups say authorities suppress the cultural identity of Uighurs and other ethnic groups, including restrictions on religious practice. The researchers also documented damage to places of worship such as mosques and cemeteries.
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Mass detentions and other controls restricting movement in and out of the area have led to painful, years-long separations of families. There have also been reports of forced sterilization and birth control.
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Credits (top to bottom): Nicolas/Asfouri/AFP/Getty Images, Isaac Lawrence/AFP/Getty Images, Nicolas/Asfouri/AFP/Getty Images.
Someone was arrested under the National Security Act. As of June, 124 individuals and five companies have been charged.
People were arrested for participating in the 2019 protests, with 2,804 indicted.
Source: Hong Kong Security Bureau
Credits (top to bottom): Stringer/Getty Images, Tian Yuhao/China News Service/Getty Images, Kevin Frayer/Getty Images.